The town of Olema was named after the Coast Miwok Indian village
of Olemaloke, which meant Coyote Village. The Olema Valley was home
to coyotes, mountain lions and bears. Indian village communities
of seventy-five to several hundred people developed in sheltered places near
fresh water and plentiful food. You can see the recreated Indian
village "Kule Loklo" (meaning "Bear Valley")
at the Bear Valley Visitor Center a short walk from the Bear Valley
Inn. The earliest historical account of Coast Miwok peoples was
by a priest on a ship under the command of Sir Francis Drake in 1579.
With the Europeans venturing into the New World, the demise of the
Miwok was not long. The rocky shores were the site of frequent shipwrecks,
such as the Portuguese captain Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno, whose
ship ran aground near Drake's Bay in 1595, laying claim to the region
for the King of Spain. Following that, the Spanish Franciscan missionaries
came around 1775, teaching European agricultural tradition and converting
the Miwok to Christianity. Then, in 1822, Spain ceded control of
the area to Mexico. Mexico then lost the area to the United States
after the Mexican-American War in 1848.
With all that, the door opened to immigrants coming to California
seeking a better life. They found the pastoral life of rural Marin
resembled many of their homelands. Émigrés to West Marin came from
such countries as Scotland, Switzerland, Croatia, China and Portugal.
They brought new fishing and farming practices which influence practices
today. For example, the Croatians introduced netting fish, while the Chinese introduced
Olema, now a tiny hamlet, gives little hint of the bustling activity
that went on here 120 years ago. Historical accounts of the pioneer
days in Olema mention two churches, seven bars, and a race track.
Other historical services included a post office, grocery store, butcher shop,
two hotels, stables, express office and a dry goods store. The
Olema Inn (the old Nelson's Hotel), built in 1876, once served
as a local bank and stage stop. The town was an important location
between the redwood forests and the port of Bolinas. Roads were
used to take the logs from the area now known as Samuel P. Taylor
Park to the ocean, where they were shipped to San Francisco for
the paper mills and newspaper offices. However, with the coming of
the railway in 1874, logs beagn to be moved by rail. Olema Hill was too
steep for the railroad, so the rail line was built to Point Reyes Station
(originally called Olema Station!). The North Pacific Coast Railway
ran from Sausalito through central Marin to the Russian River. The
track widths were different on the first and second parts of the
line, so trains had to change at Point Reyes Station onto a narrow
gauge line. This rail line operated from 1874 to 1902.
Samual P. Taylor State Park (just two miles from the current Bear Valley Inn) became
a recreation destination for San Francisco residents. Much as folks
now come to see the redwoods, people around 1889 were doing the
same. Here they are seen in Camp Taylor waiting for the train to take them back to San Francisco.
This railroad right of way is the Cross Marin bike path that hopefully
some day will connect to Point Reyes as it did then.
As Point Reyes Station grew to service the train line, Olema's importance
diminished. Now only a few buildings remain from that era, including
88 Bear Valley Road (which is the current Bear Valley Inn).
The Old Olema Butcher shop "Gamboni's" shall remain a
historic relic; the front was moved to Washington DC to be used
in a display in the California section of the Hall of Everyday Life
in the American Past, at the Smithsonian's Museum of History and
Technology. The Bear Valley Inn was part of the Shafter estate that
owned most of the land in the area up to the 1900's. The Inn is
thought to be constructed around 1910 and is an amazing house. The
walls, ceilings and floors are all built of the finest redwood.
In fact, its redwood gutter, approximately 100 years old, still
functions today. The Shafter's owned large tracts of land and operated
the Bear Valley Lodge that catered to wealthy San Franciscans who
came to Olema to hunt bear, deer, mountain lions and other creatures
plentiful at the time. The game keeper for the lodge apparently
lived at the house.
To learn about the wealth of natural history, one only has to walk
a ½ of a mile to the Point Reyes National Seashore Headquarters
with its Earthquake Trail and Interpretive Center.